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Opinion of the breeder T. Barsik 

 The owner must be able to distinguish diseased skin from healthy in order to be able to provide her with timely and feasible assistance. Remember that cats cannot come to their own well-being, so their health is in your hands. You should carefully monitor your animal, and at the first sign of illness, changes in appearance or behavior, find out if the cat is sick. Any deviation from normal behavior is cause for concern. If, normally, your cat is independent, and then suddenly it looks for our society and doesn’t leave you a single step, or vice versa, it doesn’t free its own all day, then try to win a place, what happened. Do not think that purring for cats is a sign of health. Purring can sometimes infect pain or malaise. Unexpected aggressiveness of the always calm and accommodating cat can be caused by pain, fever, concussion, infection, head injury, seizures, diabetic crisis, which requires illness. shiny coat, cold and damp nose (during sleep it can be dry and warm), mucous membranes pink and moderately moist. Vigor and mobility are also signs of the health of the animal. Important criteria for assessing the state of health are normal temperature, pulse and respiratory rate. A rise in temperature above 40°C may indicate the beginning of a pathological process. Despite the fact that the temperature situation is often a natural resistance, reactivity of the body, its sharp increase to 41 ° C most often serves as a signal for the need for urgent treatment. In addition, it should also be taken into account that body temperature develops during excitement and fright, after a heavy load, as well as in hot weather, in case of poisoning, after electric shock or due to hyperfunction of the thyroid gland. According to studies conducted in the United States (I. Calcagno, 2001), the most common causes of fever are: infectious diseases (40%), oncology (20%), systemic diseases (20%), other diseases (10%), idiopathic fever . (ten%). At rest, a healthy cat's heart rate ranges from 110 to 150 beats per minute. Animals that belong to more relaxed lifestyles have a slow heartbeat. An increased pulse occurs with an increase in temperature, with inflammatory processes, physical exertion, with overexcitation, fear and hot weather. In kittens and cats of small breeds, the pulse rate can be detected as 200 beats per minute, in cats the pulse rate is less than in cats. situations.

 It is enough to calculate the number of shocks in 15 seconds, and then multiply the resulting value by 4. It is convenient to determine the respiratory rate of a cat by the movements of the chest, abdominal wall or wings of the nose. Normally, it is from 20 to 30 respiratory movements per minute. Kittens and young animals, whose metabolism is more active than adults, breathe more frequently than adult cats, and females breathe more frequently than males. In addition, pregnant or lactating cats breathe at a higher rate than normal. The respiratory rate is also affected by size and genetic factors: small cats breathe more often than large ones, which is explained by a higher level of metabolism and, accordingly, increased heat loss. Changes in your cat's breathing rate can be caused by fear, pain, shock, or respiratory problems. It should also be borne in mind that breathing quickens in hot weather, during physical exertion, and when the cat is excited. The breathing of a healthy animal after exercise is restored in a few minutes. Difficulty breathing can be caused by heat stroke or, in rare cases, a lack of calcium in the blood during lactation in females. An animal can suffocate with heart failure, with inflammation of the genitourinary system, as well as when a foreign object is swallowed. With a disease, the cat's behavior changes. She becomes lethargic, lies more than usual, looks sad, tries to hide in a quiet darkened place, reluctantly responds to the call or, on the contrary, is too excited, constantly moves around the apartment, meows plaintively or shows aggression. Movements can become awkward, their coordination is disturbed. Signs of the onset of the disease are also fatigue, loss of appetite, insomnia, or vice versa - increased drowsiness. The coat becomes ruffled, fades, there may be increased molting, discoloration (yellowness) or elasticity of the skin. A sick cat has discharge (purulent, mucous, etc. .) from the nose, eyes, mouth and other organs. Colorless discharge may indicate anemia, yellowish discharge indicates liver damage, bloody discharge indicates serious infection or poisoning, bluish discharge indicates heart failure or circulatory system disorders. , skin with cracks, mucopurulent discharge from the nostrils, the formation of dry crusts, a whitened lobe (a sign of anemia). In a sick cat, various discharges from the eyes (clear, purulent, mucous, etc.) eye, with a number of diseases, yellowness of the mucous membrane, inflammation of the eyelids is observed. With conjunctivitis, poisoning, and some other cases, the eyes are sometimes half-closed with the third eyelid. As for the oral cavity, there may be increased salivation, bad breath is noted, the gums and tongue are covered with plaque or sores. The mucous membranes of the mouth, eyelids are pale, cyanotic or icteric. Digestion may also be disturbed. The activity of the gastrointestinal tract is changed: vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, painful defecation, accumulation of gases in the intestine are noted. Foreign objects appear in the feces (wool, worms, etc.). Drops of blood in the feces (normally they should be brown) also indicate a serious internal pathology - usually bleeding in the large intestine. Gastric bleeding, or bleeding in the anterior intestine, is evidenced by tarry feces of a dark, almost black color. Clarified feces are a sign of liver disease (lack of bile, etc.). Foamy feces is an indicator of a bacterial infection. From the genitourinary system, the following deviations may occur: increased urination, urinary incontinence, lack of urination, pain when emptying the bladder, discoloration (normal urine is yellow) and amount of urine, an unpleasant odor, mucopurulent discharge from the genitals, hunched back, stiff gait, soreness in the lumbar region. A sweet smell from the mouth may also indicate that the cat has problems with the kidneys. Diseases that make it difficult to urinate and pass food can be a tumor, prostate hypertrophy, hemorrhoids and cystitis. Breathing becomes frequent or, conversely, rare and careful (with pain), wheezing, sniffling, coughing, shortness of breath appear.

Shortness of breath in a cat can be caused by increased exercise, asthma, inflammation or emphysema, which, in turn, is a consequence of poisoning. Difficulty breathing is observed with pleurisy, heart failure, anemia, heartworms. In older cats, a cough may be a sign of heart failure. Lymphatic system. The enlarged size of the lymph nodes, as a rule, indicates the presence of an inflammatory process. More often, the submandibular lymph nodes are involved in this process, so you should learn to find and feel them. , most likely, indicates uremia. Vomiting develops in response to the ingestion of poisonous herbs into the stomach and, in general, in case of poisoning, with helminthic invasion, traveling in transport; vomiting and increasing physical weakness in combination with constipation indicate intestinal obstruction and the presence of a foreign body in the intestine. Jaundice of the mucous membranes can be a sign of hepatitis, poisoning, leptospirosis. heat and sunstroke, poisoning and some liver diseases. It can also be a symptom of such a terrible disease as rabies. The cat's body temperature, breathing, pulse change, but these signs of diseases, as a rule, do not appear all at the same time: usually one sign is most pronounced, and the rest accompany it (in one way or another). combination). The improvement of well-being and the recovery of a cat can be judged after the disappearance of all painful manifestations characteristic of a particular disease. A cat's posture can also tell a lot. A healthy animal rests or sleeps in a relaxed position, straightening the torso and stretching out the limbs. A sick cat takes a forced posture, which helps to reduce pain or any discomfort. In particular, with heart disease, the cat stands with its forelimbs wide apart - this makes it easier to breathe; the cat keeps the damaged limb on weight; with urolithiasis, intermittent lameness is possible on the hind legs on the left or right, respectively, with a diseased kidney, etc. The above signs appear to varying degrees, their combination also varies widely. If there is anything about your cat's physical condition or behavior that gives you concern, call your veterinarian or the nearest veterinary clinic (keep these phones always at hand or in a conspicuous place). 

 Source: A.V. Lipin, A.V. Sanin, E.V. Zinchenko. Veterinary guide Traditional and non-traditional methods of treatment of cats. 2002